Cable standards for charging

A charger is an electrical device that converts AC from your wall socket to DC (direct current) energy to top up the battery in your EV. Most electric car makers supply cable connectors and inlets that adhere to a certain standard set up by standards bodies, like SAE. In the U.S, connectors support at least one of the three standards J-1772, CHAdeMO or the proprietary Tesla standard.

The shape of the connector, power levels, circuit configuration etc. are specifications that define the standard but to an end-user a standard is essentially the shape of the connector that fits the vehicle charging inlet or port. The main standards used in the U.S are:

SAE J-1772

A popular U.S standard adopted by many EV manufacturers in the U.S, Europe and Asia. Connector cable looks like this:

                                                 

   

 

 

 

 

 

CCS or SAE Combo connector

SAE standard for fast charging and currently supported by several U.S, European and Asian marques. This standard is an extension to the J-1772 standard with added support for fast charging. Connector cable looks like this:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAdeMO

Japanese fast charging standard that has been adopted by many Japanese and other Asian EV manufacturers.

 

Tesla connector

Proprietary connector on Tesla vehicles and Tesla supercharging stations.

Other types of connector standards

Type 2 or Mennekes connector - Germany

Type 3 - Italy

GB/T 20324 - China

The table below shows the standard port(s) supported on each EV by brand and model.

                                ** Charging from J-1772 outlets possible with included J-1772 adapter.

                                                                      Table 1: Supported cable standards in the U.S

3       1: DC Power (+) - DC power for fast charging

4       2: DC Power (-)

5       3: Ground

        4: Charger start/stop 1 - First step. EV is initialized for charging by this signal

2       5: Charging enable/disable - Charging is enabled after Connection check at pin 6

        6: Connection check - Compatibility check, lock check and insulation check

6       7: CAN (H) - SoC (State of Charge) check within the Control Area Network

7       8: Charger start/stop 2 - Closing the connection

8       9: CAN (L) - SoC (State of Charge) check within the Control Area Network

1

9

 1 & 2: 120V to 240V power to on-board battery charger

 3: Ground pin

 4: Pilot signal - Detects presence of car connected to cable and initializes current to charge battery etc.

 5: Proximity detection - Detects movement of vehicle and cuts off power if cable is disconnected

 6: DC power and ground for fast charging

     

 1 & 2: 120V to 240V power to on-board battery charger

 3: Ground pin

 4: Pilot signal - Detects presence of car connected to cable and initializes current to charge battery etc.

 5: Proximity detection - Detects movement of vehicle and cuts off power if cable is disconnected

     

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